Furnaces are designed to automatically add heat to your home. By understanding some basics, you can help it to do this efficiently. This will help you to keep some of your hard earned money in your pocket.
There are several types of furnaces and they are usually grouped by the type of fuel they use. Some of the common types include gas, oil, wood, biomass, and electric.
A special type is used in mobile homes. They use special venting and duct systems and are certified for use in manufactured homes.
Residential gas fired forced air heating system.
These units burn either natural or liquified petroleum (lp) gas. The heating cycle starts when the thermostat senses that the room temperature is below the setpoint. On newer units, this causes an inducer fan to pull air through the unit establishing adequate combustion airflow. After proper airflow is verified, the gas valve is opened allowing gas to flow. The gas flows through the burners where it is ignited by a spark or the heat from the ignitor. (Older units have what is called a standing pilot which is a small flame that burns constantly to light the gas.)
After the unit senses the flame is lit, the spark or ignitor is turned off. Normally, the gas will burn for approximately two minutes before the blower is started. This prevents blowing cold air out the vents at the start.
After the preset time or at a set temperature, the blower motor is energized and air is blown over the heat exchanger. The air is heated and supplied to the duct system.
When the thermostat senses that no more heat is required, the gas valve is deenergized and the gas is shut off. The blower motor usually runs for another few minutes to cool off the heat exchanger. This can be controlled by either a timer or a temperature switch.
A gas furnace has an input rating that is expressed in btu per hour. This is how the size of the unit is expressed. Common sizes are 40000, 60000, 80000, 100000, and 120000 btu/hr. It is absolutely critical that your unit is the proper size for your home. A load calculation is performed to find the right unit for your specific home.
Not all of the heat that is available from the gas is put into the home’s air. The ratio of the heat output of the unit to the heat content of the gas supplied is the unit’s efficiency or afue. AFUE is short for annual fuel utilization efficiency and is expressed as a percentage. Some common efficiency ratings are 80%, 90%, etc. A higher efficiency unit requires less gas to heat the home and therefore your utility bill is lower.
There are several classes of gas furnaces. Most manufacturers still produce non-condensing models. These units have only one heat exchanger. These units are the least efficient at about 80% and are sometimes referred to as mid efficiency units. These units use metal pipe to exhaust the combustion products from the home. With the price of fuel these days, it is not a good idea to purchase one of these units.
The next class is referred to as high efficiency units. There is no standard as to when a manufacturer can use this phrase to describe their furnace. Therefore, you have to look at the details. In general, for a unit to be considered high efficiency, it should be a condensing furnace. These units have two heat exchangers to get more heat from the unit. Their efficiency rating (afue) is at least 90%. These units extract heat from the exhaust products of the furnace. This produces water which is called condensate. They collect this water and deliver it to a drain system outside the furnace.
The last class is where the units have added features built into them. One such feature is called a variable speed blower motor. In these units a sensor monitors the speed of the blower and adjusts the power supplied to it to provide a desired speed. These blowers are usually quieter and more energy efficient.
Another added feature is where the unit has two gas input rates. These are called two stage furnaces. On the first stage the unit burns less gas and this helps to more closely match the heating load. On the coldest days, the unit can increase it’s output by switching to the second stage firing rate. An advantage of these units is that you normally have longer run cycles which can provide more uniform temperatures throughout the home. These units usually have a slightly higher afue rating. Most of the manufacturers combine this feature with the variable speed blower.
Some advanced units, called modulating gas furnaces, have variable gas input rates. This allows them to very closely match the heating requirements of the home. Usually the units have a built in control that, after a preset amount of operation, increases the gas input. This is continuously done to match the load.
The most advanced units are part of a CHP system and produce electricity while they heat the home.
Oil Fired Furnaces
Next, we will look at oil fired furnaces. The heating cycle for these systems starts with the thermostat sensing the need to add heat. This energizes a burner motor which pulls fuel oil from a tank and combines it with the proper amount of air. At the same time a spark is generated by an ignition transformer. The oil passes through a nozzle which has a very small hole and a tiny screen in it. This breaks up the oil and causes it to vaporize so it can be ignited by the spark.
After a delay to allow the heat exchanger to warm up, the blower motor is energized. This draws air into the unit and passes it over the heat exchanger where it is heated. The air is then sent into the duct system to be distributed throughout the home. The blower is normally turned on and off by a temperature switch. This switch also will shut the unit off if the unit overheats.
After the thermostat is satisfied, the burner motor is deenergized and oil flow is stopped. The blower motor continues to run until the heat exchanger is sufficiently cooled.
Corn Burning Furnaces
These units burn shelled corn to produce the heat. They usually have a small flame burning constantly once the unit is lit for the first time of the season. When the thermostat senses a need for heat, two augers and a combustion blower are energized. These augers transfer the shelled corn from a storage bin to the furnace. The combustion blower establishes draft and provides the proper amount of air to burn the corn.
After the heat exchanger is warmed up, a temperature switch turns the blower motor on. This pulls air into the unit where it is warmed and transferred to the supply duct system.
When the corn is burned it produces ashes. Typically it produces one pound of ash for each 100 pounds of corn burned. These ashes fall into a pan where they are collected.
When the thermostat is satisfied, the augers and combustion blower are shut off. The blower motor runs until the furnace is cooled down. Then the temperature switch shuts it off.
These units produce heat from electricity flowing through special wires called elements. Unlike the other units, these units are 100% efficient. All of the electricity is used to produce heat. The size of these units is expressed in kilowatts instead of btu/hr.
When the thermostat senses a need for heat, a relay energizes the element and the blower motor. Some units use more than one heating element. These units have other relays to turn on the other elements.
When the thermostat is satisfied, the relays are deenergized. After a short time delay, the elements and fan are shut off.
Some units are combined with the air conditioning system and are referred to as packaged air conditioners. Units that combine a gas furnace with the air conditioner are commonly called gaspacks. The main advantage of them is that all of the equipment is located outside the home. Therefore, no valuable floor space is used for the hvac system. The main disadvantage of them is that they are usually less efficient. Typically the gas furnace section has an AFUE of 80%.
Other units combine electric heating elements with the air conditioning system. They have the same advantage as gaspacks without the loss in efficiency. The main disadvantage is that, in some areas, an electric heating system may cost more to operate than gas.
Some units combine a heat pump with a gas furnace and they are called hybrid systems. They can be more cost effective to operate.